Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT3G57390.1
Common NameAGL18, F28O9.240
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Protein Properties Length: 256aa    MW: 28874.4 Da    PI: 6.0018
Description AGAMOUS-like 18
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT3G57390.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeyss 51
                 k+ien   rqvtfskRrng++KKA+ELS+LCdaeva+iifsstgk+y++ss
                 68***********************************************96 PP

        K-box  17 lqqelakLkkeienLqreqRhllGedLesLslkeLqqLeqqLekslkkiRskKnellleqieelqkkekelqeenkaLrkkle 99 
                    ++ + +k e+e Lq  + +l+G++Le +s+ +L +Le+qL++sl +++++K+++ll+qie+++ +ek++ een+ Lrk++e
                  55566899************************************************************************997 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5006631.833161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SMARTSM004322.2E-39160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SuperFamilySSF554554.58E-31283IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002659.25E-41275No hitNo description
PRINTSPR004046.2E-29323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003191.1E-251057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004046.2E-292338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004046.2E-293859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE profilePS5129713.25994184IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
PfamPF014862.2E-1696178IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009555Biological Processpollen development
GO:0009910Biological Processnegative regulation of flower development
GO:0048577Biological Processnegative regulation of short-day photoperiodism, flowering
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000084anatomyplant sperm cell
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0025195anatomypollen tube cell
PO:0001016developmental stageL mature pollen stage
PO:0001017developmental stageM germinated pollen stage
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 256 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
1tqe_P1e-18169169Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2B
1tqe_Q1e-18169169Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2B
1tqe_R1e-18169169Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2B
1tqe_S1e-18169169Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2B
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.240260.0root| seed| silique
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT3G57390-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: During the reproductive phase, accumulates in immature buds and at the base of the floral organs, and in the receptacle, ovules, anther filaments, and stigma and style of open flowers. Later observed in sporogenous tissue of anthers. During male gametogenesis, expressed in the microspores before they separate from each other. Later present at high levels within pollen grains up to stage 13 of flower development, when anthers dehisce. During carpel development, first detected in developing ovules. After fertilization, confined to globular structures or nodules of proliferating free nuclear endosperm required for embryo development. Disappears from the endosperm at to the heart stage of embryo development, when very little nuclear endosperm remains. Never detected in developing embryos at any stage. In young seedlings, present everywhere except in a portion of the hypocotyl and in newly emerging leaves. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11115127, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Mostly expressed in pollen, roots, flowers and siliques, and to a lower extent, in stems and leaves. Expressed in the endosperm and in developing male and female gametophytes. Also present in seedlings. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11115127, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12837945, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12949148, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16028119, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRencodes a MADS-box containing protein likely to be a transcription factor that is expressed in endosperm and developing gametophytes. The protein sequence is most similar to that of AGL15, which is expressed in developing embryos.
UniProtProbable transcription factor involved in the negative regulation of flowering, probably through the photoperiodic pathway. Prevents premature flowering. Downstream regulator of a subset of the MIKC* MADS-controlled genes required during pollen maturation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18034896, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18799658}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Flowering time is determined by the additive effect of multiple MADS domain floral repressors, with important contributions from AGL15 and AGL18.
    [PMID: 17521410]
  2. AGL15 and AGL18 may form a complex along with other proteins, and bind to the CArG motifs of the promoters of MIR156 to activate the MIR156 expression.
    [PMID: 25666346]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT5G13790 (R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Altered expression of MIKC* MADS-controlled genes during pollen maturation. Early flowering under short-days conditions (SD) when combined with AGL15 disruption. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18034896, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18799658}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT3G57390
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAF3126630.0AF312663.1 Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box protein AGL18 (AGL18) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAK2222200.0AK222220.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for MADS transcription factor-like protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL25-29-C20.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_191298.10.0Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL18
SwissprotQ9M2K80.0AGL18_ARATH; Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL18
TrEMBLA0A087GYM21e-158A0A087GYM2_ARAAL; Uncharacterized protein
STRINGAT3G57390.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1617761
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Alvarez-Buylla ER, et al.
    MADS-box gene evolution beyond flowers: expression in pollen, endosperm, guard cells, roots and trichomes.
    Plant J., 2000. 24(4): p. 457-66
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  3. Ma L, et al.
    Genomic evidence for COP1 as a repressor of light-regulated gene expression and development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(10): p. 2383-98
  4. Zik M,Irish VF
    Global identification of target genes regulated by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA floral homeotic gene action.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(1): p. 207-22
  5. Parenicová L, et al.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1538-51
  6. Kofuji R, et al.
    Evolution and divergence of the MADS-box gene family based on genome-wide expression analyses.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2003. 20(12): p. 1963-77
  7. Pina C,Pinto F,Feij
    Gene family analysis of the Arabidopsis pollen transcriptome reveals biological implications for cell growth, division control, and gene expression regulation.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 138(2): p. 744-56
  8. Gan Y,Filleur S,Rahman A,Gotensparre S,Forde BG
    Nutritional regulation of ANR1 and other root-expressed MADS-box genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Planta, 2005. 222(4): p. 730-42
  9. Lehti-Shiu MD,Adamczyk BJ,Fernandez DE
    Expression of MADS-box genes during the embryonic phase in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2005. 58(1): p. 89-107
  10. He XJ, et al.
    AtNAC2, a transcription factor downstream of ethylene and auxin signaling pathways, is involved in salt stress response and lateral root development.
    Plant J., 2005. 44(6): p. 903-16
  11. Truman W,de Zabala MT,Grant M
    Type III effectors orchestrate a complex interplay between transcriptional networks to modify basal defence responses during pathogenesis and resistance.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(1): p. 14-33
  12. Helliwell CA,Wood CC,Robertson M,James Peacock W,Dennis ES
    The Arabidopsis FLC protein interacts directly in vivo with SOC1 and FT chromatin and is part of a high-molecular-weight protein complex.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(2): p. 183-92
  13. Kim J,Shiu SH,Thoma S,Li WH,Patterson SE
    Patterns of expansion and expression divergence in the plant polygalacturonase gene family.
    Genome Biol., 2006. 7(9): p. R87
  14. Verelst W,Saedler H,Münster T
    MIKC* MADS-protein complexes bind motifs enriched in the proximal region of late pollen-specific Arabidopsis promoters.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 143(1): p. 447-60
  15. Adamczyk BJ,Lehti-Shiu MD,Fernandez DE
    The MADS domain factors AGL15 and AGL18 act redundantly as repressors of the floral transition in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2007. 50(6): p. 1007-19
  16. Hill K,Wang H,Perry SE
    A transcriptional repression motif in the MADS factor AGL15 is involved in recruitment of histone deacetylase complex components.
    Plant J., 2008. 53(1): p. 172-85
  17. Verelst W, et al.
    MADS-complexes regulate transcriptome dynamics during pollen maturation.
    Genome Biol., 2007. 8(11): p. R249
  18. Thakare D,Tang W,Hill K,Perry SE
    The MADS-domain transcriptional regulator AGAMOUS-LIKE15 promotes somatic embryo development in Arabidopsis and soybean.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 146(4): p. 1663-72
  19. Wang Y, et al.
    Transcriptome analyses show changes in gene expression to accompany pollen germination and tube growth in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(3): p. 1201-11
  20. Pouteau S, et al.
    Diversification of photoperiodic response patterns in a collection of early-flowering mutants of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(3): p. 1465-73
  21. Reňák D,Dupl'áková N,Honys D
    Wide-scale screening of T-DNA lines for transcription factor genes affecting male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.
    Sex. Plant Reprod., 2012. 25(1): p. 39-60
  22. Gu X,Wang Y,He Y
    Photoperiodic regulation of flowering time through periodic histone deacetylation of the florigen gene FT.
    PLoS Biol., 2013. 11(9): p. e1001649
  23. Fernandez DE, et al.
    The MADS-Domain Factors AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and AGAMOUS-LIKE18, along with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE and AGAMOUS-LIKE24, Are Necessary to Block Floral Gene Expression during the Vegetative Phase.
    Plant Physiol., 2014. 165(4): p. 1591-1603
  24. Serivichyaswat P, et al.
    Expression of the floral repressor miRNA156 is positively regulated by the AGAMOUS-like proteins AGL15 and AGL18.
    Mol. Cells, 2015. 38(3): p. 259-66
  25. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73